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听力原文 Built to heal


00:01

Every weekend for as long as I can remember, my father would get up on a Saturday, put on a worn sweatshirt and he'd scrape away at the squeaky old wheel of a house that we lived in. I wouldn't even call it restoration; it was a ritual, catharsis. He would spend all year scraping paint with this old heat gun and a spackle knife, and then he would repaint where he scraped, only to begin again the following year. Scraping and re-scraping, painting and repainting: the work of an old house is never meant to be done. 


00:37

The day my father turned 52, I got a phone call. My mother was on the line to tell me that doctors had found a lump in his stomach -- terminal cancer, she told me, and he had been given only three weeks to live. 


00:52

I immediately moved home to Poughkeepsie, New York, to sit with my father on death watch, not knowing what the next days would bring us. To keep myself distracted, I rolled up my sleeves, and I went about finishing what he could now no longer complete -- the restoration of our old home. 


01:11

When that looming three-week deadline came and then went, he was still alive. And at three months, he joined me. We gutted and repainted the interior. At six months, the old windows were refinished, and at 18 months, the rotted porch was finally replaced. 


01:31

And there was my father, standing with me outside, admiring a day's work, hair on his head, fully in remission, when he turned to me and he said, "You know, Michael, this house saved my life." 


01:46

So the following year, I decided to go to architecture school. 


01:52

(Laughter) 


01:53

But there, I learned something different about buildings. Recognition seemed to come to those who prioritized novel and sculptural forms, like ribbons, or ... pickles? 


02:06

(Laughter) 


02:10

And I think this is supposed to be a snail. 


02:14

Something about this bothered me. Why was it that the best architects, the greatest architecture -- all beautiful and visionary and innovative -- is also so rare, and seems to serve so very few? And more to the point: With all of this creative talent, what more could we do? 


02:36

Just as I was about to start my final exams, I decided to take a break from an all-nighter and go to a lecture by Dr. Paul Farmer, a leading health activist for the global poor. I was surprised to hear a doctor talking about architecture. Buildings are making people sicker, he said, and for the poorest in the world, this is causing epidemic-level problems. In this hospital in South Africa, patients that came in with, say, a broken leg, to wait in this unventilated hallway, walked out with a multidrug-resistant strand of tuberculosis. Simple designs for infection control had not been thought about, and people had died because of it. 


03:18

"Where are the architects?" Paul said. If hospitals are making people sicker, where are the architects and designers to help us build and design hospitals that allow us to heal? 


03:32

That following summer, I was in the back of a Land Rover with a few classmates, bumping over the mountainous hillside of Rwanda. For the next year, I'd be living in Butaro in this old guesthouse, which was a jail after the genocide. I was there to design and build a new type of hospital with Dr. Farmer and his team. If hallways are making patients sicker, what if we could design a hospital that flips the hallways on the outside, and makes people walk in the exterior? If mechanical systems rarely work, what if we could design a hospital that could breathe through natural ventilation, and meanwhile reduce its environmental footprint? 


04:14

And what about the patients' experience? Evidence shows that a simple view of nature can radically improve health outcomes, So why couldn't we design a hospital where every patient had a window with a view? Simple, site-specific designs can make a hospital that heals. 


04:32

Designing it is one thing; getting it built, we learned, is quite another. 


04:37

We worked with Bruce Nizeye, a brilliant engineer, and he thought about construction differently than I had been taught in school. When we had to excavate this enormous hilltop and a bulldozer was expensive and hard to get to site, Bruce suggested doing it by hand, using a method in Rwanda called "Ubudehe," which means "community works for the community." Hundreds of people came with shovels and hoes, and we excavated that hill in half the time and half the cost of that bulldozer. Instead of importing furniture, Bruce started a guild, and he brought in master carpenters to train others in how to make furniture by hand. And on this job site, 15 years after the Rwandan genocide, Bruce insisted that we bring on labor from all backgrounds, and that half of them be women. 


05:30

Bruce was using the process of building to heal, not just for those who were sick, but for the entire community as a whole. We call this the locally fabricated way of building, or "lo-fab," and it has four pillars: hire locally, source regionally, train where you can and most importantly, think about every design decision as an opportunity to invest in the dignity of the places where you serve. Think of it like the local food movement, but for architecture. And we're convinced that this way of building can be replicated across the world, and change the way we talk about and evaluate architecture. 


06:15

Using the lo-fab way of building, even aesthetic decisions can be designed to impact people's lives. In Butaro, we chose to use a local volcanic stone found in abundance within the area, but often considered a nuisance by farmers, and piled on the side of the road. We worked with these masons to cut these stones and form them into the walls of the hospital. And when they began on this corner and wrapped around the entire hospital, they were so good at putting these stones together, they asked us if they could take down the original wall and rebuild it. And you see what is possible. It's beautiful. And the beauty, to me, comes from the fact that I know that hands cut these stones, and they formed them into this thick wall, made only in this place with rocks from this soil. 


07:08

When you go outside today and you look at your built world, ask not only: "What is the environmental footprint?" -- an important question -- but what if we also asked, "What is the human handprint of those who made it?" 


07:23

We started a new practice based around these questions, and we tested it around the world. Like in Haiti, where we asked if a new hospital could help end the epidemic of cholera. In this 100-bed hospital, we designed a simple strategy to clean contaminated medical waste before it enters the water table, and our partners at Les Centres GHESKIO are already saving lives because of it. 


07:49

Or Malawi: we asked if a birthing center could radically reduce maternal and infant mortality. Malawi has one of the highest rates of maternal and infant death in the world. Using a simple strategy to be replicated nationally, we designed a birthing center that would attract women and their attendants to come to the hospital earlier and therefore have safer births. 


08:12

Or in the Congo, where we asked if an educational center could also be used to protect endangered wildlife. Poaching for ivory and bushmeat is leading to global epidemic, disease transfer and war. In one of the hardest-to-reach places in the world, we used the mud and the dirt and the wood around us to construct a center that would show us ways to protect and conserve our rich biodiversity. 


08:37

Even here in the US, we were asked to rethink the largest university for the deaf and hard of hearing in the world. The deaf community, through sign language, shows us the power of visual communication. We designed a campus that would awaken the ways in which we as humans all communicate, both verbally and nonverbally. 


08:57

And even in Poughkeepsie, my hometown, we thought about old industrial infrastructure. We wondered: Could we use arts and culture and design to revitalize this city and other Rust Belt cities across our nation, and turn them into centers for innovation and growth? In each of these projects, we asked a simple question: What more can architecture do? And by asking that question, we were forced to consider how we could create jobs, how we could source regionally and how we could invest in the dignity of the communities in which we serve. 


09:35

I have learned that architecture can be a transformative engine for change. 


09:45

About a year ago, I read an article about a tireless and intrepid civil rights leader named Bryan Stevenson. 


09:56

(Applause) 


10:02

And Bryan had a bold architectural vision. He and his team had been documenting the over 4,000 lynchings of African-Americans that have happened in the American South. And they had a plan to mark every county where these lynchings occurred, and build a national memorial to the victims of lynching in Montgomery, Alabama. 


10:25

Countries like Germany and South Africa and, of course, Rwanda, have found it necessary to build memorials to reflect on the atrocities of their past, in order to heal their national psyche. We have yet to do this in the United States. 


10:44

So I sent a cold email to info@equaljusticeintiative.org: "Dear Bryan," it said, "I think your building project is maybe the most important project we could do in America and could change the way we think about racial injustice. By any chance, do you know who will design it?" 


11:06

(Laughter) 


11:08

Surprisingly, shockingly, Bryan got right back to me, and invited me down to meet with his team and talk to them. Needless to say, I canceled all my meetings and I jumped on a plane to Montgomery, Alabama. When I got there, Bryan and his team picked me up, and we walked around the city. And they took the time to point out the many markers that have been placed all over the city to the history of the Confederacy, and the very few that mark the history of slavery. 


11:38

And then he walked me to a hill. It overlooked the whole city. He pointed out the river and the train tracks where the largest domestic slave-trading port in America had once prospered. And then to the Capitol rotunda, where George Wallace had stood on its steps and proclaimed, "Segregation forever." And then to the very hill below us. He said, "Here we will build a new memorial that will change the identity of this city and of this nation." 


12:06

Our two teams have worked together over the last year to design this memorial. The memorial will take us on a journey through a classical, almost familiar building type, like the Parthenon or the colonnade at the Vatican. But as we enter, the ground drops below us and our perception shifts, where we realize that these columns evoke the lynchings, which happened in the public square. And as we continue, we begin to understand the vast number of those who have yet to be put to rest. Their names will be engraved on the markers that hang above us. And just outside will be a field of identical columns. But these are temporary columns, waiting in purgatory, to be placed in the very counties where these lynchings occurred. Over the next few years, this site will bear witness, as each of these markers is claimed and visibly placed in those counties. Our nation will begin to heal from over a century of silence. 


13:23

When we think about how it should be built, we were reminded of Ubudehe, the building process we learned about in Rwanda. We wondered if we could fill those very columns with the soil from the sites of where these killings occurred. Brian and his team have begun collecting that soil and preserving it in individual jars with family members, community leaders and descendants. The act of collecting soil itself has lead to a type of spiritual healing. It's an act of restorative justice. 


14:00

As one EJI team member noted in the collection of the soil from where Will McBride was lynched, "If Will McBride left one drop of sweat, one drop of blood, one hair follicle -- I pray that I dug it up, and that his whole body would be at peace." 


14:22

We plan to break ground on this memorial later this year, and it will be a place to finally speak of the unspeakable acts that have scarred this nation. 


14:34

(Applause) 


14:45

When my father told me that day that this house -- our house -- had saved his life, what I didn't know was that he was referring to a much deeper relationship between architecture and ourselves. Buildings are not simply expressive sculptures. They make visible our personal and our collective aspirations as a society. Great architecture can give us hope. Great architecture can heal. 


15:16

Thank you very much. 


15:17

(Applause) 



00:01

在我能够记住的每个周末 我的父亲在周六起床后 会穿上一件旧T恤衫 他会刮掉 我们所住的老房子的油漆 我不能把它叫做修整 那是一种仪式 一种净化 他会用整整一年的时间来 用他的热风枪 以及抹墙粉刀来刮掉油漆 然后他会重新油漆他刮掉的部分 这只是为了能在来年重新开始 刮漆和再次刮漆 油漆和再次油漆 这所老房子的工作永远不会结束 


00:37

当我父亲52岁的时候 我接到一通电话 我母亲在线上 告诉我说医生在他的腹腔发现一个肿块儿 癌症晚期 她这么跟我说 他只能活三周 


00:52

我立即搬家到纽约 Poughkeepsie, 守护我父亲的临终死亡 不知道第二天我们会发生些什么 为了让自己分散注意力 我卷起了袖子 我去做他再也无法完成的事情 修整我们的老房子 


01:11

当那个无形的三周期限来到了 又过去后 他还是活着 三个月后 他开始跟我一起 我们重新粉刷了内部 六个月后 老窗户完成了 18个月的时候 破败的阳台也翻新了 


01:31

而我的父亲 和我一起站在外面 欣赏着一天的工作 他头上的发 重新长了出来 他走向我 对我说 你知道 迈克 这栋房子救了我 


01:46

所以 第二年 我去了建筑学院 


01:52

(笑声) 


01:53

在那儿 我学到了 关于楼房的很多不同的东西 成名似乎都是 给那些最先革新和雕塑的形式 比方说缎带 或者是 腌黄瓜条? 


02:06

(笑声) 


02:10

但我认为这应该是一个蜗牛 


02:14

这很让我烦恼 为什么最好的建筑 最伟大的建筑 全是美丽、创新和标新立异的-- 而且极其罕见 并且只有少数人能够享受 再加上一点 在这些创造性的天分之上 我们还能做些什么呢? 


02:36

就在我要我开始我期末考试的时候 我决定从通宵的学习中偷个懒 我去了 Paul Farmer医生的一个演讲 他是一个健康活动家领袖 为了全球的贫困而努力 我很惊奇地听到一个医生 谈论到关于楼房令人生病的事情 他说在全世界最贫困的地方 这引起了流行病程度上的问题 在南非的医院 比如说 一个腿骨折的病人来到医院 在通风不好的大厅等候 就会带着几种抗药性的结核病菌种走出医院 根本没有想到为控制感染的简单设计 人们因此而死亡 


03:18

“建筑师在哪儿呢?”Paul说道 如果一个医院令人们生病 那么帮助建筑和设计 那些可以让人痊愈的医院 的设计师和建筑师又在哪儿呢 


03:32

那个接下来的暑期 我和几个同学一起开着路虎 在卢旺达的山岭间穿越颠簸 因为来年 我将居住在Butaro 这所老客房内 这是种族屠杀后的一座监狱 我在那里与Farmer医生和他的团队 一起设计和建造一种新型的医院 如果大厅会使病人病情加重 那么我们能够设计一种医院可以 把大厅向露天敞开 使人们在外面走动 如果机械系统不工作 那么我们是否可以设计一种医院 能通过自然通风而呼吸 同时减少它的环境足迹 


04:14

还有病人的体验将会怎样呢? 证据显示简单的自然景象 能够从根本上提高总体健康 所以为什么我们不能设计一种医院 使每位病人有一面窗户 简单、特定的设计能建造一个治愈的医院 


04:32

设计是一件事 建造它 是另一件事 


04:37

我们跟Bruce Nizeye一起工作 他是一个非常了不起的工程师 对于建筑 他对我从学校学来的那一套 有不同的看法 当我们必须在这个巨大的山顶挖掘的时候 推土机的消费昂贵而且难以到达那里 Bruce建议用双手来解决 借助在卢旺达叫做“Ubedehe(愚公移山)”的方法 叫做“社区工作为社区服务” 几百人带着铁锹和锄头来到现场 我们用了一半的时间 和一半的推土机的费用而挖掘了山顶 Bruce带来了木匠大师 让他们来给其他人面授机宜 教导如何在现场手工做家具 所以 我们就不用进口家具了 在卢旺达人的种族灭绝15年后 Bruce坚持我们需要各种背景的劳动者 其中一半是女人 


05:30

Bruce利用建筑来治疗 不仅是为那些病人 而且是把整个社区团结起来 我们把这个叫做 当地人赤手空拳的建筑 或者是“当地-奇迹“ 它有四根立柱 从当地雇佣的工人 就地取材 训练学徒 而最重要的 想想每个设计的决策是一个机会 给你所服务的地方高贵的投资 把它作为当地的食品运动 对建筑来说 我们有理由认为这种建筑 可以在全世界翻版再建 改变我们所说的评估构架 


06:15

利用“当地奇迹”的办法来建造楼房 即使审美决定的设计 也能对人们的生活产生影响 在Butaro 我们选择利用当地的火山石 在那个区域里资源非常充足 而且通常被当地农人看作是很讨厌的 堆砌在路边 我们跟这些泥瓦匠切割这些石块 让它们做医院的墙 当它们从这里开始 环绕了整个医院 这些石块放在一起非常好 他们问我们是否能够拆掉原来的 重新建立一个 你可以看见什么是可能的 它很美 对我来说 这个美人 是来自手工切割的那些石块儿 他们把它们嵌进了这堵厚墙 只是在此地利用了来自这片土壤的石块儿 


07:08

现在 当你到了外面 看看你建造的这个世界 不仅要问 一个重要的问题 “什么是环境的足迹“ 我们同时也会问 ”建造它的人类的手印又是什么呢?“ 


07:23

我们根据这些问题开始了一个新的练习 我们在全世界做了试验 像在海地 我们在问一坐新医院 是否会给霍乱的流行划上句号 在这个100张床位的病房里 我们设计了一个简单的策略 来清除污染的医疗废品 在它进入水源之前 而我们在 Les Centres GHESKIO的合作伙伴 已经为此拯救了不少的生命 


07:49

或者在Malawi: 我们会问是否接生中心会从根本上 减少母婴的死亡率 Malawi有着世界上 最高的母婴死亡率 利用一个简单的策略来做到 我们设计了一个接生中心 吸引女人和她们的同伴 早些来到医院 因此而有着较为安全的分娩 


08:12

或者在Congo,我们会问 是否可以有一个教育中心 来用以保护处于灭绝的野生动物 偷猎象牙和野兽肉 会导致全球流行病的传染和战争 在这个世界上最难以企及的一个地方 我们利用了泥巴 尘土和周围的木头 建造了一个中心 像我们显示了 保留我们丰富的生物多样性的方法 


08:37

即便是在美国 我们被要求重新思考 世界上最大的聋哑大学 聋人社区 通过手势语言 像我们展示视觉交流的力量 我们设计了一个校园 可以唤醒人们作为一个整体而交流 以语言或非语言的方式 


08:57

即使在我的家乡Poughkeepsie 我们想到古老的工业基础设施 我们疑惑 我们能用艺术文化和设计来振兴这个城市吗 还有全国其它一些老旧的条带式城市 能把她们变成革新和成长的中心吗? 我们在每个项目上都询问一个简单的问题 建筑师还能够多做些什么? 通过这个问题 我们被迫地考虑到我们怎样来完成工作 怎样就地取材 怎样在我们所服务的社区 有尊严地投资 


09:35

我已经学到了 建筑可成为变化的转变性引擎 


09:45

一年以前 我读过一篇文章 是关于一位孜孜不倦的勇敢的民运领袖 他叫Bryan Stevenson 


09:56

(鼓掌) 


10:02

Bryan有一个大胆的建筑观点 他和他的队友们已经记录了 在南美发生的 超过4000例的美国非裔的私刑案例 他们计划标记下这些私刑发生的每一个区县 他们在阿拉巴马的蒙哥马利 为私刑的牺牲者建立了一个国家纪念馆 


10:25

像德国和南非 当然还有卢旺达 我们发现有必要建立一个纪念馆 来折射他们过去的暴行 以便从心理上获得全国性的治愈 我们在美国也要这样做 


10:44

所以我发出了一个邮件到 info@equaljusticeintiative.org: 邮件上说:“亲爱的Bryan“ “我以为你的建筑项目 也许是我们在美国能做到的最好的 而且它能改变我们所认为的种族不平等 顺便问一句 你知道谁去设计这个建筑呢?“ 


11:06

(笑声) 


11:08

令人吃惊的是 Bryan马上回了我的邮件 并且邀请我去跟他的团队见面和谈话 不用说 我取消了自己所有的会议 直飞阿拉巴马的蒙哥马利 当我到达那里以后 Bryan和他的团队接我去参观了城市 他们花了一番时间指出 在全市所置放的 很多关于南部联邦历史的标记 没有几个标记是关于奴隶的 


11:38

然后他带我走上一个山坡 可以俯瞰整个城市 他指给我看一条河和某些火车道 曾经是美国国内最大的奴隶交易港口 一度非常繁荣 然后我们到了国会圆顶大厦 乔治华莱士曾经站在它的阶梯上宣称 “永远隔离” 然后我们到了丘陵下面 他说 “我们会建立一个新的纪念馆 这将改变这座城市和这个国家的面目 


12:06

我们两个团队去年在一起工作 并设计了这个纪念馆 这个纪念馆会带领我们走上一个旅途 通过一个古典的 几近熟悉的建筑类型 像帕台农神庙或在梵蒂冈的柱廊 但当我们进入的时候 地面下降,我们的视界更换了 我们意识到这些柱子唤起 在公共广场发生的私刑 当我们继续的时候 我们开始明白数目巨大的这一部分人 已经置于安息 他们的名字会刻在我们上面的这些标记 而在外面 也会有相同的柱子 但这些是临时的 等候着 今后几年 在那些私刑发生的区县 尚在炼狱中的未明之人 就像每个标记宣称的 在这些国家有目共睹的 我们的国家将开始从世纪的沉默得到疗愈 


13:23

当我们考虑怎样来建造它 我们想起了“卢旺达人的愚公移山” 我们开始了在卢旺达的那种建筑程序 我们疑惑是否我们能够 用私刑发生的当地的泥土来填充这些柱子 Bryan和他的团队已经开始搜集了那些泥土 并且保存在瓶罐之中 和他们的家庭成员 社区领袖和子孙后代们在一起 搜集泥土的行为本身 就带来了某种精神的疗愈 这是某种回顾性的司法 


14:00

就像一个Eji队员 在 Will McBride 的私刑处 的泥土搜集过程中记下来的 “如果Will McBride留下了一滴汗 一滴血 一根头发 我祈祷我会将它挖掘出来 那么他的整个身体将会安息 


14:22

我们计划在今年后半年将纪念馆破土动工 它将是一个最终能够诉说不可说的行为 而这个行为使这个国家伤痕累累 


14:34

(鼓掌) 


14:45

当我的父亲在那天告诉我这座房子 我们的房子-- 挽救了他的生命 那时我还不知道 他指的是我们和建筑之间 有着深深的联系 建筑不仅仅是一座表达性的雕像 它让我们个人和集体的愿望 浮现于社会 伟大的建筑能给我们希望 伟大的建筑能够疗愈创伤 


15:16

非常感谢大家 


15:17

(鼓掌) 


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